/ php

Laravel Contracts

Contracts

Laravel的Contracts(契约)是一系列框架用来定义核心服务的接口,一系列的标准,用来解耦具体需求对实现的依赖关系。这个依赖问题在之前的依赖注入和服务容器的文章中提到过,你可以把Contracts理解成例子中的Mail接口。

框架对每个契约都提供了相应的实现。例如,Laravel为队列提供了各种驱动的实现,为邮件提供了由 SwiftMailer驱动的实现。

Illuminate/Foundation/Application.php中你可以看到默认Contracts实现的绑定。

    /**
     * Register the core class aliases in the container.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function registerCoreContainerAliases()
    {
        $aliases = [
            'app'                  => [\Illuminate\Foundation\Application::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Container\Container::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Foundation\Application::class],
            'auth'                 => [\Illuminate\Auth\AuthManager::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Factory::class],
            'auth.driver'          => [\Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Guard::class],
            'blade.compiler'       => [\Illuminate\View\Compilers\BladeCompiler::class],
            'cache'                => [\Illuminate\Cache\CacheManager::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Cache\Factory::class],
            'cache.store'          => [\Illuminate\Cache\Repository::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Cache\Repository::class],
            'config'               => [\Illuminate\Config\Repository::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Config\Repository::class],
            'cookie'               => [\Illuminate\Cookie\CookieJar::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Cookie\Factory::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Cookie\QueueingFactory::class],
            'encrypter'            => [\Illuminate\Encryption\Encrypter::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Encryption\Encrypter::class],
            'db'                   => [\Illuminate\Database\DatabaseManager::class],
            'db.connection'        => [\Illuminate\Database\Connection::class, \Illuminate\Database\ConnectionInterface::class],
            'events'               => [\Illuminate\Events\Dispatcher::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Events\Dispatcher::class],
            'files'                => [\Illuminate\Filesystem\Filesystem::class],
            'filesystem'           => [\Illuminate\Filesystem\FilesystemManager::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Filesystem\Factory::class],
            'filesystem.disk'      => [\Illuminate\Contracts\Filesystem\Filesystem::class],
            'filesystem.cloud'     => [\Illuminate\Contracts\Filesystem\Cloud::class],
            'hash'                 => [\Illuminate\Contracts\Hashing\Hasher::class],
            'translator'           => [\Illuminate\Translation\Translator::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Translation\Translator::class],
            'log'                  => [\Illuminate\Log\Writer::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Logging\Log::class, \Psr\Log\LoggerInterface::class],
            'mailer'               => [\Illuminate\Mail\Mailer::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Mail\Mailer::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Mail\MailQueue::class],
            'auth.password'        => [\Illuminate\Auth\Passwords\PasswordBrokerManager::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\PasswordBrokerFactory::class],
            'auth.password.broker' => [\Illuminate\Auth\Passwords\PasswordBroker::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\PasswordBroker::class],
            'queue'                => [\Illuminate\Queue\QueueManager::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\Factory::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\Monitor::class],
            'queue.connection'     => [\Illuminate\Contracts\Queue\Queue::class],
            'queue.failer'         => [\Illuminate\Queue\Failed\FailedJobProviderInterface::class],
            'redirect'             => [\Illuminate\Routing\Redirector::class],
            'redis'                => [\Illuminate\Redis\RedisManager::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Redis\Factory::class],
            'request'              => [\Illuminate\Http\Request::class, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request::class],
            'router'               => [\Illuminate\Routing\Router::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\Registrar::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\BindingRegistrar::class],
            'session'              => [\Illuminate\Session\SessionManager::class],
            'session.store'        => [\Illuminate\Session\Store::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Session\Session::class],
            'url'                  => [\Illuminate\Routing\UrlGenerator::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\UrlGenerator::class],
            'validator'            => [\Illuminate\Validation\Factory::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\Validation\Factory::class],
            'view'                 => [\Illuminate\View\Factory::class, \Illuminate\Contracts\View\Factory::class],
        ];

        foreach ($aliases as $key => $aliases) {
            foreach ($aliases as $alias) {
                $this->alias($key, $alias);
            }
        }
    }

Contracts VS Facades

关于ContractsFacades的比较,下面放出对官方文档的简明解释。
Facades和一些辅助函数提供了一种使用Laravel服务的简单方法,即不再需要通过类型约束和在服务容器之外解析契约。在大多数情况下,每个Facade都有一个等效Contract

Contracts需要你明显地定义依赖关系,Facades只需要你给出一个别名。总而言之就是Contracts更详细,Facades使用更便捷。